Socio-ecological systems is a framework for understanding the interactions fo humans with their environment. This module examines how we can use records of the past to understand human-environment interactions over the timescales on which climate change plays out. It will present key concepts and theories for understanding the complex dynamics of socio-environmental systems, and illustrates how careful consideration of palaeoenvironmental, archaeological and historical data can be used to understand how past societies coped with climatic stresses and managed finite resource. We also consider how knowledge of the past can inform current and future thinking about social resilience and conservation management. The module uses case studies from the Old and New Worlds, including North Atlantic, Pacific Islands, and the African savannah.